Know in detail about English test taken after filing US citizenship application.

English class


Ability to read, write, speak and understanding of English words used ordinarily must be demonstrated by an applicant filing US citizenship application. Understandable and relevant communication by using simple terminology and grammar is what is considered as ordinary usage. So this may include pronouncing, constructing, understanding and spelling errors while completing certain words, phrases and sentences which are noticeable.

The English requirement to gain citizenship status may still be met though an applicant may ask for words to be repeated or rephrased and also make some errors in pronunciation, spelling, and grammar. Unless the officer is satisfied whether the applicant fully understands the question being asked or if he/she is having a problem understanding the English language itself an officer should repeat and rephrase questions.

Test to check speaking ability

During the naturalization examination based on the ability of the applicant to respond to the questions asked normally, an officer determines an applicant’s ability to speak and understand English.  Related to the eligibility for naturalization and about questions available on the citizenship application questions are asked by the officer.  Unless the officer is satisfied in knowing whether the applicant fully understands the question being asked or if he/she is having a problem understanding the English language itself an officer should repeat and rephrase questions.

Communication in English is expected from an applicant about the naturalization application and also eligibility for naturalization if he/she does not qualify for a waiver of the English requirement. Each and every phrase or word on the application is not required to be understood by the applicant.

The ability to speak English is demonstrated sufficiently if the applicant generally understands and responds meaningfully to questions applicable to his or her naturalization eligibility.  If applicant is not able to speak English sufficient to understand and take the oath or answer questions on his/her application the applicant fails the speaking test. Rest of the naturalization test portions which include the reading, writing and civics portions must still be administered by the officer next.

The applicant should have an interpreter present in such cases to make them clearly understand the cost of withdrawing the naturalization application and an officer cannot suggest or allow a withdrawal of application from an applicant who cannot speak English.

Ability to reading English

Out of three sentences applicant must be able to read at least one in order to prove English reading ability sufficiently.  The reading test is automatically by the officer once one sentence is read correctly by the applicant.

In a manner that the applicant is able to communicate the meaning of the sentence without long pauses and also which the officer is able to understand if one of the three sentences are read by applicant then he/she passes the reading test. It’s okay for applicant to generally omit short words making errors in pronouncing or intonation of words without affecting the meaning but should read all content words of at least one sentence.

If unable to read at least one sentence successfully the applicant fails the reading test. The applicant should also not omit one content word also or substitute another word instead. Reading sentence after long period of pauses and in such a way that the officer doesn’t understand the sentence including making errors like in pronouncing or word modulation also results in failure of English reading test.

Testing English writing ability

Applicant must write at least one sentence out of the three sentences in such a manner that the officer understands it to prove English writing ability sufficiently. Using the standardized forms of a writing test the sentence is dictated to the applicant by the officer. None of the words should be abbreviated by applicant. The officer should stop the writing test once the applicant is able to write at least one of the three sentences in such manner that the officer understands it.

Spelling, punctuation or capitalization errors made do not result in writing test failure of the applicant. But if the officer is not able to understand the sentence and the errors done affects the meaning of the sentence then the applicant fails the writing test.

If meaning of one of the three sentences is communicated by the applicant to the officer he/she passes the writing test. The sentence may have few grammatical or capitalization or spelling errors. Also short words which do not change the meaning of the sentence may be omitted and numbers can either be written as digits or spelled out.

In a way that the meaning of the sentence is not conveyed and the officer is not able to understand the sentence if applicant writes then he/she fails the test. If the sentence written is different with other words, words written in abbreviated form, with just one or two isolated words and if fully scribbled then in the writing test the applicant fails.


Get to know about tests in the process of becoming a citizen in US.

US citizen test


One of the most important requirements for US citizenship is the English language knowledge. Next to the main eligibility requirements like 18 years of minimum age and being a green card holder with minimum 5 years presence in US for the process of becoming a citizen in US the educational requirements are verified. To determine if an applicant meets the English and civics requirements a naturalization test is administered by an officer.

The two components of the naturalization test are proficiency in English language and next US history and government knowledge. The ability of applicant to read, write, speak and understanding of English language is tested.  Testing of the US history and government knowledge forms part of the civics test.

Do I get to take a retest?

The initial examination and the re-examination interview are the two opportunities given to an applicant to pass both tests. Even after two attempts if the applicant fails in any portion of the two tests then USCIS will deny the naturalization application. Failed portion of the test must be administered by the officer again in case the applicant requests a hearing by USCIS on the denial.

Failure to appear for the testing re-examination, take tests at an examination or at a hearing are counted as attempts of failure to pass the test by an applicant unless USCIS excuses it.

Who qualifies for test exception?

From both the requirements of taking the English and the civics tests or any one of them applicant may be given exception. Following are scenarios when an applicant qualifies for such exceptions during naturalization.

1. Exception based on age and residency 

From the English language based test an applicant may be given exception but he/she still should pass the civics test if

  • At the time naturalization application is filed if the applicant is 50 years of age or older and lived in US for minimum 20 years as an lawful permanent resident; or
  • At the time of filing application for US citizenship if the applicant is 55 years of age or older and lived in US for minimum 15 years as a lawful permanent resident.

In the language of own choice the applicant is allowed to take the civics test with the help of an interpreter.

2. Civics test based exceptions

If applicant is 65 years of age or older and has been staying as a lawful permanent resident for minimum period of 20 years in United States at the time of filing for US citizenship special consideration with regards to civics test is given. Specific form for the test is administered for an applicant who qualifies for such special consideration.

3. Exception based on medical disability

Either from the civics requirement, English requirement or sometimes from both requirements exemption is given due to severe medical disabilities the applicant is not able to meet the English and civics requirements.

Under IRCA 1986 requirements

In order to be eligible for adjustment of status to a lawful permanent resident it’s mandatory according to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) for persons legalized under INA 245A to meet basic skill requirement for citizenship. In order to demonstrate basic citizenship skills an applicant was required to pass the English and civics tests which are administered by legacy Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), now USCIS. If not by an INS authorized organization then applicants should pass the administered English and civics tests.

Under IRCA only on portion of the test the applicant did not satisfy the officer will retest the applicant on at the time of reexamination for naturalization.   Unless applicant is exempted of English test based on age and residence time considerations or only if he/she qualifies for a medical waiver otherwise at the time of naturalization examination in all cases applicant should demonstrate English speaking ability.

Overview on educational requirements to obtain citizenship status in US.

USC requirement


Understanding of the English language which includes ability to read, speak and write the words used ordinarily must be shown by applicants filing for citizenship status in US
. Also civics, the knowledge and good understanding of the fundamentals of the history and principles and form of the US government must be also demonstrated by applicants. English and civics are the requirements for naturalization. This applies for persons applying for American citizenship online also.

To the English requirements the applicant may be eligible for an exception if the applicant is of a certain age and for a good certain period of time applicant has been a lawful permanent resident. From both the English and civics requirements additionally certain applicants having physical or any developmental disability or any mental illness may be eligible.

Character requirement

Good moral character (GMC) is one of the requirements for naturalization. Important to show that the applicant has previously been and will continue to be a person of good moral character for naturalization. During the five year time period prior to filing the naturalization application and up to the time of the Oath of Allegiance generally the applicant must show GMC. Also prior to the five-year period whether the applicant meets the conduct requirement also may impact naturalization.

To naturalize prior to 1906 requirements like English knowledge, civics, history or understanding of the constitution principles were all not required. The applicant would become a US citizen if the court decides that he/she was a law abiding and productive person with good moral character. Unless an applicant understood provisions of the constitution it was found way back in 1908 by former Immigration Service and the Courts that proof to show attachment to the constitution which is required for naturalization was not possible to be ascertained.

Customizing language test

Amendments which included the English language requirement and based on age and residence some exemptions were made by Congress in 1940. This also included a provision in which based on understanding of their constitutional principles questioning the applicants were allowed.

Applicants who were not able to meet the educational requirements for naturalization because of a medical disability were in 1994 provided an exception by a legislation enacted by Congress. Based on age and residence Congress also amended the exceptions to the English requirement that are current today. United States citizenship and immigration services (USCIS) had redesigned the English and civics test on October 1, 2008.USCIS ensured with this redesigned test, that testing experience for all applicants were the same and opportunity to demonstrate their understanding of English and civics were provided equally.

Legal authority details

For educational requirements for naturalization in the Immigration and Nationality Act Part 312 Title 8 of the Code of Federal Regulations (INA 312; 8 CFR 312) details were given. And for the general requirements for naturalization the Immigration and Nationality Act Part 316 Title 8 of the Code of Federal Regulations (INA 316; 8 CFR 316) lists the details.

Exemption exists for party affiliated applicant filing US citizenship application?


nazi image


Instances when a naturalization applicant who meets all requirements for filing US citizenship application is found to be associated with a communist party may also be granted an exemption and could also obtain US citizenship. Solely the burden lies with the applicant to prove his/her eligibility for that exemption in this case. So in order to obtain US citizenship for some applicants the time it takes to be fully eligible will decide the time period of how long to become citizen

For this it’s important for the naturalization applicant to establish one of the following:

  • Involuntarily the applicant had got the membership or affiliation;
  • Unaware of the nature or the organizational aims the applicant’s membership or affiliation was and once the applicant came to know the he/she had discontinued membership;
  • Prior to the applicant attained the age of 16 the membership or affiliation was terminated;
  • More than 10 years prior to the filing for naturalization the applicant’s membership or affiliation was terminated;
  • by operation of law the applicant’s membership or affiliation was;
  • In order to obtain food rations, for purposes of obtaining employment or other fundamentals of living the applicant’s membership or affiliation was necessary.

The applicant’s participation must have been minimal in nature though he/she had participated without being aware of the nature or the aims of that organization. Benefits which were available on a regular basis to the rest of the population including fundamental requirements of living like shelter, food, education, clothing and employment must have been provided by the organization of which the applicant was also a member.

Applicants with higher educational qualification are eligible for this exemption only if he/she can prove that the circumstances were so special that the need for higher education were converted into basic needs like food or employment and in order to receive such prerequisites of living the applicant had extended only minimal support required.

If reason for being a member was to obtain a college education it is inexcusable and not considered as basic essential of living. Hence the applicant should prove that the special circumstances were such that requirement of higher education was like the other very basic needs like food or employment requirements.

Other affiliations affecting naturalization in US

Applicants are not eligible for admission into the United States and are permanently disqualified from naturalization if they are directly or indirectly in association with the Nazi government of Germany or any government which is allied with or occupied by the Nazi government of Germany. Responsibility to prove that the applicant is not ineligible to obtain US citizenship based on involvement in the Nazi party by providing the required proof or support documents to support the claim is with the applicant.

Since he or she is disallowed from establishing good moral character applicant is banned forever from naturalization if he/she was engaged in harassment or genocide. Also prior to being admitted as a lawful permanent resident (LPR) an applicant would become inadmissible if he/she was engaged in either harassment or genocide. In accordance with all the provisions applicable such an applicant would not have lawfully acquired LPR status and hence would not be eligible for naturalization. They could also be deported in such cases.

Connections with national security issues arise from information about applicant’s membership in a terrorist organization. While determining the applicant’s eligibility in terms with the good moral character (GMC) and attachment requirements such information is important.

Make sure you qualify fully for the process of becoming a citizen in US!



To naturalize in US apart from the basis eligibility requirements which includes applicant being minimum 18 years of age and a green card holder with who meets the minimum 5 years of residence requirement, there are also other more specific requirement able to select applicants. So during process of becoming a citizen the applicant should prove his/her intent to the good order and happiness of the US. Burden solely lies on the applicant to prove their attachment to the Constitution of US.

For this it’s important for the applicant not to be a member of some parties and some organizations as discussed below.

Association with communist party

Only if the applicant proves that he/she is not associated with such parties and/or organizations within ten years prior to applying for naturalization and till Oath of Allegiance is administered, he/she qualifies to apply for US citizenship. In case either one of the following is true applicant does not qualify:

  • with the Communist Party or any other dictatorial party the applicant is or has been a member of or associated
  • either a authoritarian single party rule was established by applicant or he/she is or has promoted communism in the United States;
  • With an organization which sponsors communism or the association of repressive single party rule in the United States if applicant is or has been a member. It could be either through its own statement or through any written or printed matter which was published by such organization;
  • As a revolutionary or a member of or associated with a revolutionary organization if the applicant is;
  • If knowingly is publishing or already has published some revolutionary either written or printed material or applicant has printed or written some matter promoting communism.
  • For the purpose of either circulating rebellious written or printed matter, or either written or printed matter which promotes communism if the applicant is knowingly circulating or has circulated, or knowingly possesses or previously has possessed ; or
  • With any organization that either publishes or circulates or for either circulating or publishing purposes if possesses any revolutionary printer or written matter or for sponsoring communism the applicant is or has been a member of, or allied with.

File Form N-426 to obtain citizenship status in US!

Form N-426 USCIS


For lack of attachment to the US constitution and constructive temperament to the good order of the US generally by law disallows from naturalization those who are plan evaders and absconders from the US armed forces during wartime. Naturalization will be disqualified for those who have been convicted for a military abandonment or a disappearance from the United States to avoid a military plan by a court martial or a court of knowledgeable jurisdiction. From the applicant’s acknowledgment during the naturalization examination or interview, security checks, and from the Form N-426, Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service such information may be obtained by USCIS.

By court martial or court of experienced jurisdiction if an applicant is not convicted though he/she has admitted to have deserted during wartime may still be eligible for citizenship status in United States. So without a final conviction he/she may be listed as a deserter according to their military records. How long to become citizen for such applicants also will be decided.

Association with certain organizations

During the interview on the naturalization application filed by an applicant the officer will review his/her record and testimony to determine whether he or she was ever a member of or in any way either directly or indirectly associated with:

  • Communist Party;
  • Similar autocratic party or
  • Organization involved in terrorist activities.

Lack of attachment to the constitution may be indicated by the current and previous memberships in such organizations. Not being well inclined to the good order and happiness of the United States is also indicated by such an applicant. Issues of good moral character, lawful admission, or applicant may even be rendered deport-able if they hold memberships in such organizations.

Among all other naturalization requirements like being 18 years or older of age with green card and minimum 5 years of continuous presence in US responsibility lies on the applicant to prove that he or she has an attachment to the Constitution. Also an applicant should also prove to be well inclined to the good order and happiness of the United States. Burden of proof will be considered not met if the applicant refuses to give evidence or submit related documents proving his/her membership in such organizations. At the end of removal proceedings even if such an applicant has not been removed USCIS will deny his/her naturalization application based on such grounds.

So it’s important for such war evaders to make sure they are not convicted by court martial in order to be eligible for citizenship in United States. There could be various genuine and serious reasons behind such acts. It’s very important to note that USCIS does consider such cases and does process the naturalization application of such applicants who are not convicted. Making sure to have the required papers and documents is very important to prove their case. So persons who have worked with United States army should file Form N-426 and get the necessary certificates before filing for citizenship in US.

Register with selective service before filing US citizenship application.

sss selective service


With selective service all males in US generally should register after their 18th birthday within 30 days time or anytime before he turns 26 years of age. This registration was suspended by US government in April, 1975 but was again resumed in 1980. Intentionally failing or refusing to register for selective service an applicant contradicts his temperament to the good order and happiness of the United States. Also this shows no attachment to principles of the Constitution, no good moral character, and also no willingness to bear arms on behalf of the United States. By registering applicant benefit even when filing US citizenship application.

How to register?

At their local post office applicants can register for selective service, also by returning a Selective Service registration card received by mail or on Selective Service System website online. By calling (847) 688-6888 or at, confirmation of registration may be obtained. As proof of registration the officer may also accept other convincing evidence presented by an applicant.

Appropriate data is transmitted by USCIS to the Selective Service System (SSS) for male applicants between the ages of 18 and 26 in order to assist them with the registration process for those who apply for adjustment of status.

USCIS assists with the registration process by transmitting the appropriate data to the Selective Service System (SSS) for male applicants between the ages of 18 and 26 who apply for adjustment of status. As his official proof of Selective Service registration an acknowledgement that is sent by Selective Service to the eligible male who has registered can be used.

Not registered with selective service?

Knowingly and intentionally refusing or failing to register with Selective service during the legal period will lead to USCIS denial of the naturalization application of an applicant. Before concluding that he failed to register a status information letter and registration acknowledgement card will be requested for the applicant by the officer. Same is the case while applying for American citizenship online also.

Whether a requirement to register existed will be indicated in the status information letter. The applicant’s failure to register was not a knowing or intentional act must be shown by a prevalence of the evidence by him. On behalf of the applicant if process is not completed due to failure on the part of USCIS or SSS then it will not constitute a willful failure to register on the part of the applicant.

In addition to failure to register it will show that the applicant is not well inclined to the good order and happiness of the US in cases where denial notice establishes intentional failure to register. Based on age of the applicant at time of US citizenship application filing and till the time of the oath this determination depends.

If aged below 26 years applicants are generally ineligible. If age is between 26 and 31 years for naturalization applicants may be ineligible but USCIS will give an opportunity to the applicant to show that it was not required for him to register or intentionally or knowingly he did not fail to do so. For applicants above 31 years of age they are eligible. Even if the applicant knowingly and intentionally fails to register, outside of the legal period only the applicant would have failed to register and so would be eligible for naturalization.

Registration not required

With selective service following males classes are not required to register:

  • If aged over 26 years
  • Between 18 and 26 years if age those who did not live in the United
  • Living in the US between 18 and 26 years of age but for the whole period maintained lawful non-immigrant status
  • Was born before December 31, 1959 but after March 29, 1957.

Make sure you are ready for process of becoming a citizen in US!

US citizen process


During the legally prescribed period an applicant filing for the process of becoming a citizen in US should show that he/she was and would continue to be a person who has attachment towards principles of the Constitution of the United States and well inclined to the good order and happiness of the United States. Compared to well inclined, ‘attachment ‘is a stronger term and means an intensity of conviction and this would lead to vigorous support of the Constitution.

An understanding and an intellectual attitude inclusive of willingness to be attached to the principles of the US Constitution is included in attachment. Applicant is not eligible for US citizenship if he/she is unreceptive to the basic form of government of the United States, or who does not believe in the principles of the United States Constitution. The main eligibility requirements include applicant’s minimum age requirement of 18 years, to be a green card holder with continuous residence for 5 years minimum and also good moral character. But only if he/she proves faith in US constitution they are not naturalized and can’t take the oath.

Oath of Allegiance must be taken by naturalization applicants in a public ceremony in order to be admitted to US citizenship. His or her attachment to the United States and its Constitution is declared at that time by an applicant. So while being admitted to citizenship its must for the applicant to understand the following:

  • without any mental hesitation or purpose of avoidance he or she is taking the Oath freely;
  • all foreign commitment he or she is sincerely and absolutely renouncing;
  • to the United States, its Constitution and laws he or she is giving true faith and allegiance;
  •  to make the United States his or her permanent home should be applicant’s intention  and also where he or she will fully assume residency; and
  • when required by the law he or she is discharging all duties and obligations of citizenship including military and civil service.

An acceptance of the democratic, representational process established by the United States Constitution and the willingness to obey the laws which result from that process should be demonstrated by the applicant. True faith and allegiance to the United States includes supporting and defending the principles of the Constitution is also important.

So that is why the process of naturalization apart from checking eligibility and reviewing support documents also includes a civics test. English expertise is also checked to ensure that the applicant doesn’t have any kind of language problems while interacting with others and to also be able to live and work in US without hassles. The applicant who meets the requirement of minimum age of 18 years, green card holder for minimum five years and also maintaining residence in US doesn’t automatically qualify. Only after the required background checks about applicant’s character are done the applicant is fully eligible. Once the final interview happens in which the applicant is tested about English expertise and civics information of US only than an applicant’s real intentions and faith in US constitution is known by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.

Filing early to gain citizenship status in US is allowed.

90 days USC


With the state or service district which has jurisdiction over the place of residence of the applicant he/she should file application in order to gain citizenship status in US generally. Prior to filing for at least three months the applicant should have resided in that location. Applicants may also make use of the applying for American citizenship online option available. The geographical area over which the USCIS office has jurisdiction is referred to as “Service district”. And the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands are included in the term “State”.

Within the state where the applicant resides the Service District that has jurisdiction over an applicant’s application may or may not be located. Over more than one State some Service Districts may additionally have jurisdiction and more than one USCIS office are present in most States. The applicant is required to report the change of address after filing the naturalization application to USCIS in cases where an applicant changes or plans to change his or her residence. This helps in transferring the applicant’s A-file along with application to the appropriate office having jurisdiction over the applicant’s new place of residence.

What is place of residence?

The applicant’s primary, actual place of abode of the applicant with no regards to the intent is referred as “residence”.  From the moment the applicant first establishes residence in that location the duration of an applicant’s residence in a particular location is measured.

Provision for early filing

In Immigration and Nationality Act part 334 (INA 334) a 90-Day Early Filing Provision is available. Before he or she would first meet the required 5-year period of continuous residence as an lawful permanent resident (LPR) under the general naturalization provision an applicant may file his or her application up to 90 days before.  Until the applicant reaches the required five-year period of continuous residence as an LPR the applicant is not eligible for naturalization though an applicant may file early according to the 90 day early filing provision.

By counting back 90 days from the day before the applicant would have first satisfied the continuous residence requirement for naturalization USCIS calculates the early filing period. For example, USCIS will begin to calculate the 90-day early filing period from June 9, 2010 if the applicant would satisfy the five-year continuous residence requirement for the first time on June 10, 2010. In such a case, the earliest that the applicant is allowed to file would be March 12, 2010 that is 90 calendar days earlier.

Immediately preceding the examination on the application based on the three-month period the jurisdiction for filing will be in cases where within the required five-year period of continuous residence an applicant has filed early and the required three month period of residence in a State or Service District falls.

Expedited processing for application of SSI beneficiaries

Naturalization applications filed by applicants will be expedited by USCIS if by the Social Security Administration (SSA) their Supplemental Security Income (SSI) will be terminated within one year or less and for four months or more from the date of receipt by USCIS whose naturalization application have been pending. All eligibility requirements for naturalization should be met by each applicant still at the time of filing though USCIS will prioritize processing of these applications.

Either through an INFO PASS appointment or US postal mail or any courier service USCIS must be informed about approaching termination of benefits by applicants. They should do so by providing an explanation in the form of cover sheet or letter that within one year or less their SSI benefits would be terminated and also that from the date of receipt by USCIS the application for naturalization has been pending for four months or more. Indicating the termination of the SSI benefits, copy of the applicant’s most recent SSA letter with the USCIS alien number written the top right, should be provided.

US citizenship application after filing is checked thoroughly.

USC application checks


Main requirement for an applicant who is filing the US citizenship application is to be a lawful permanent resident and above 18 years of age during naturalization. Also though the applicant has a permanent resident card if the status of lawful permanent resident was not obtainedlegally the applicant is not eligible for US citizenship. Also at the time of filing applicant must have resided continuously in the US for minimum 5 years as a LPR. But 90 days prior to reaching the five years continuous period of residence the naturalization application can be filed.

General Requirements under INA 316

All the applicable requirements of the conditional residence provisions must have been met by a conditional permanent resident (CPR) who is filing for naturalization under the general provision based on his or her permanent resident status for five years. All the conditions on the resident status must have been removed for CPRs to be eligible for naturalization. If not removed it means that in accordance with all applicable Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions the CPR was not admitted to US for permanent residence. The applicant’s Form I-751, Petition to Remove the Conditions of Residence must first be approved and only then the applicant remains will be eligible for naturalization.

Who are given exception?

  1. For non-citizen nationals of the United States law provides an exception to the LPR requirement for naturalization. This means persons who are born in outlying possessions of the United States like American Samoa or Swains Island currently are considered to be nationals of the United States. Applicant who has become a resident of any such State and also fulfills the applicable requirements of naturalization laws may be naturalized though he/she is a non-citizen national of the United States and also does not establish lawful admission for permanent residence. As defined in the INA these nationals are not “aliens” and a Permanent Resident Card (PRC) is not possessed by them.
  2. US armed force personnel are exempted from the LPR requirement if they are members with service under specified conditions.

Documents for evidence

As evidence for his/her status Permanent Resident Card is issued to each person admitted lawfully for permanent residence by USCIS.  As evidence to their status lawful permanent residents (LPRs) who are over 18 years of age should have their Permanent Resident Card (PRC). The date and the classification under which the person was given LPR status are provided in the Permanent Resident Card. But to establish that the applicant has been lawfully admitted for permanent residence in agreement with all applicable provisions of the INA the PRC alone, however, is insufficient.

Continuous residence for at least five years needs to be met by a naturalization applicant. This means an applicant should have maintained a residence as permanent place of dwelling in United States for the required period according to the legal order. Generally the actual physical location of the applicant regardless to their intentions whether he/she declare it as his or her residence is the applicant’s residence.